The ceramic industry relies on a variety of chemicals and raw materials for the production of ceramics. These chemicals play crucial roles in different stages of the ceramic manufacturing process. Here are some key chemicals used in the ceramic industry:

  • Clays and Raw Materials
    A primary clay used in the production of ceramics. It provides whiteness and plasticity to the clay body.
    Ball Clay: Adds plasticity, strength, and workability to the clay mixture.
  • Fluxing Agents
    Used as a flux to lower the melting temperature of the raw materials and promote vitrification.
    Talc: Acts as a flux and contributes to glaze formulation.
  • Binder and Plasticizers
    Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA):
     A common binder used in ceramic formulations.
    Deflocculants: Such as sodium silicate, are used to disperse particles in the clay mixture.
  • Colouring Agents
    Metal Oxides:
    Various metal oxides like iron oxide, cobalt oxide, and manganese oxide are used to impart colour to ceramics.
    Stains and Pigments: These are used to achieve specific colours in the glazes.
  • Additives and Modifiers
    Zirconium Compounds:
    Often added for opacification in glazes.   – **Lithium Compounds: Used in some specialty ceramics.
    Boron Compounds: Such as borax, are used as fluxing agents.
  • Binders and Deflocculants
    Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC):
    Used as a binder in ceramic bodies.
    Sodium Silicate:Acts as a deflocculant to improve the rheological properties of the ceramic slurry.
  • Firing Aids
    Kiln Wash:
    A mixture of alumina and kaolin applied to kiln shelves to prevent glaze from sticking.
  • Glaze Materials
    Silica, Alumina, and Fluxes:
    Used in various combinations to formulate glazes with specific properties.
    Zirconium Silicate: Used as an opacifier in glazes.
  • Refractory Materials
    Silicon Carbide, Mullite, Alumina:
    Used in the production of refractory ceramics for kiln furniture and lining.